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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (literally "Dravidian Progress Federation") is a regional political party in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. It also has presence in nearby union territory of Puducherry. It is a Dravidian party founded by C. N. Annadurai as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam headed by Periyar. The party is headed by M Karunanidhi, the incumbent Chief Minister of the state.

Foudation of DMK

Justice Party

DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) formed in 1916, by P. Thiyagarayar, Dr.P T Rajan, Dr. Natesanar and few others. The Justice Party, whose objectives included social equality and justice, came to power in the first General Elections to Chennai Presidency in 1920.[2] E. V. Ramasami Naicker (known as "Periyar"), a popular Tamil leader, who had joined Indian National Congress in 1919, became disillusioned with what he considered as the Brahminic leadership of the party.[3] He quit Congress and in 1935, he joined the Justice Party. In the 1937 elections, the Justice Party lost and the Indian National Congress under C. Rajagopalachari ("Rajaji") came to power in Madras Presidency. Rajaji's introduction of Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools led to the anti-Hindi agitations, led by Periyar and his associates

Dravida Kazhagam

In August 1954, Periyar carved out the "Dravida Kazhagham" out of the Justice Party at the Salem Provincial Conference.

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

However, over the years, disputes arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai, decided to split from Dravida Kazhagham, after an aged Periyar married a young woman Maniammai and anointed his young wife to act as his successor to lead the party, superseding senior party leaders. Until then E. V. K. Sampath, the nephew of Periyar, was considered as his political heir.

Annadurai, on September 17, 1949 along with V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, K.A.Mathialagan, K. Anbazhagan, E. V. K. Sampath and thousands of others in Robinson park in Royapuram in Chennai announced the formation of the DMK. Few months later M. Karunanidhi, left DK and joined the DMK. The DMK carried on the principles and aims of the Justice Party and Dravidar Kazhagam. The movement was initially mooted as one that championed the cause of socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society. It was also sympathetic to the demand for a separate "Dravida Nadu" state.

DMK has been firmly in favour of reservation for the backward classes for social upliftment, and has increased reservation up to 69% the highest in the country. DMK along with Periyar forced the withdrawal of the Kula Kalvi Thittam of Rajaji where schools will work in the morning and students had to compulsorily learn the family vocation in the afternoon.

MGR was a member of the DMK, and he was seen as an icon of the DMK and spread its message through films like Anbe Vaa. In 1953 MGR joined the DMK popularised the party flag and symbol by showing it in his movies.Annadurai wanted a separate Dravida Nadu which he gave after the Indian parliament amended (in 1963) the constitution prohibiting "separtist parties" to contest elections following the 1962 China War. The Anti-Hindi agitations of 1965, forced the central government to abandon its efforts to impose Hindi as the only official language of the country; still Hindi imposition continued as Indian government employees are asked to do write as much as 65% of the letters and memoranda in Hindi. In 1967, DMK came to power in Tamil Nadu , after the anti-Hindi tide helped it defeat the Congress.

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