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Tamil Nadu - Sports - Swimming


The aquatic sport of swimming involves competition amongst participants to be the fastest over a given distance under self propulsion. The different events include 25 50, 100, 200, breaststroke, backstroke and butterfly, the 50, 100, 200, 400, 500, 800, 1000, 1500, and 1650 free and the 100, 200, and 400 individual medley M, consisting of all strokes. The order of the individual medley is butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle. In the 100 IM you swim a 25 f each stroke, 200- 50 (2 laps) 400- 100 of each stroke in the IM. Swimming has been part of the modern Olympic Games since inception in 1896. Along with the other aquatic disciplines of diving, synchronised swimming and water polo, the sport is governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation FINA.


Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800, mostly using breaststroke. In 1873 John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native Americans. Due to a British disregard for splashing, Trudgen employed a scissor kick instead of the front crawl's flutter kick. Swimming was part of the first modern Olympic games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902 Richard Cavill introduced the front crawl to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation , was formed. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952.


Butterfly Butterfly is a stroke in which the swimmer brings both hands over their head, breathing forward, kick with both feet together in sequence, two kicks per arm stroke. All walls must be touched with two hands at the same time.
Backstroke Backstroke is a stroke which is similar to the front crawl, except on your back. Kicking by alternating both feet, pulling each arm one at a time, and looking straight up. At walls, flip turns are permitted, and a two-hand touch is not necessary.
Breaststroke Breaststroke is a stroke where the swimmer kicks legs out , scoops the water in towards the chest with his or her hands and then thrusts the hands out in front just before the kick is repeated. One underwater "pull-out" is permitted after every wall and each wall requires a two-hand touch.
Freestyle Freestyle is a not a defined stroke as the others are. However, as swimmers are free to choose any stroke they wish, most select the Front Crawl, as it is both the fastest and most efficient. The front crawl is a stroke where the swimmer breathes to the side, kicks by alternating both legs, and pulls with each arm at different times. Flip turns are legal. Many meets also include free relays, in which four team members each swim an equal distance of freestyle; when one member touches the wall, the next can dive off the block.
IM IM stands for individual medley, and includes, in this order: fly, back, breast, free. Open turns are required in the switch from one stroke to another, but flip turns can be made during back and free. Each stroke must be completed before moving on to the next stroke. 25:100 is the ratio for the amount swam for each stroke. 25 yards stroke to each 100 total. Many meets also include medley relays, in which four team members each swim one stroke.
Open-turn An open-turn is a touch and go turn. Fly and breast must touch with two hands, but can push off with one.
Flipturn In a flipturn, the swimmer swims to the wall, tucks, flip, and pushes off. This is only legal in back and free. A backwards flip is also allowed between Backstroke and Breaststroke in the Individual Medley.


The goal of competitive swimming is to be have the fastest to complete a given distance. Competitive swimming became popular in the nineteenth century, and comprises 36 individual events 18 male events and 18 female events, however the IOC only recognizes 34 events 17 male and 17 female events. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 13 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50 meter pool. Competitive swimming's international governing body is FINA the International Swimming Federation.

Competition pools

The majority of competitions are held either in a long course 50 m or short course 25 m or 25 yd pool.